In other words, WebGL is a rasterization engine, which means you can use it to make 2D or 3D graphics. Its versatile nature means you can use it to run video games in the web browser, create animations like the one above, edit images, display data, and more! There are many libraries built on top of WebGL that can make the learning curve a little more manageable. A couple of useful libraries are Three.js and p5.js. Shaders are pretty much universal. No matter what library you use, it will work the same.
What is WebGL
According to the wiki
WebGL is a cross-platform, royalty-free API used to create 3D graphics in a Web browser.
Basically WebGL is a rasterization engine. Which means you can use it to make 2D or 3D graphics, and it's very versatile. It can be used to run video games in the web, create animations like the one above, edit images, display data, and more! And there are a lot of libraries built on top of WebGL that can make the learning curve a little easier like Three.js and p5.js. We are going to be focusing on making shaders in GLSL so we won't need any of these libraries, but this info can be used in conjunction with any of them.
What is GLSL
OpenGL Shading Language (GLSL) is a C based shading language. This language allows the web browser access to resources of the GPU when rendering to a canvas. There are two main kinds of shaders, fragment shaders, and vertex shaders.
The vertex shader handles the process of compute the position of individual vertices. You can use this step to transform, scale, and morph an object.
When it is time to render the objects, the fragment shader is called for every pixel that needs to be rendered. This shader is responsible for setting the color and depth for every pixel. This step is essential in animations like the one above.
It might be surprising, but that's all you need to make a WebGL program! There will be a lot of syntax and variables you will need to learn in completing your program. If you think you got what it takes, I recommend checking out this excellent tutorial series on getting started with WebGL. WebGL Fundamentals